Galapagos penguin is endemic to the Galápagos archipelago, Ecuador. The species is undergoing severe fluctuations, primarily as a result of marine perturbations that may be becoming more extreme. Contamination from oil spills poses another severe potential threat. Non-native predators like rats, cats, and dogs remain problems on many islands. Feral cats are also vectors of parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii, which has recently been found in Galápagos penguins with still unknown consequences. Mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) arrived in the Galápagos in the 1980s as a result of human actions. Since they are vectors for avian malaria, and West Nile Virus and penguins in the genus Spheniscus are highly susceptible to these diseases, these insects represent a potential new threat to the Galápagos penguins.The species is described as ”endangered” by the World Conservation Union (IUCN).